No less with the cities of the world that has a giant statue of Jesus, on 2 December 2007 the Governor of North Sulawesi inaugurate a giant statue of Jesus, located in the housing in the area Citraland Menado Winangun. White Jesus statue huge drift while in a position facing to bless this city Menado below. Indeed, the location of the property housing the famous Ciputra is located in the hilly area from the top so that this city can be seen Menado. This statue than a bookmark for the people of the city Menado the majority of Christians want to affirm this determination of local governments to make Menado as the City Tour in 2010. People need not to Venezuela or Brazil to see the giant statue of Jesus because the city now have no-Menado.
Evidence suggests Borobudur was abandoned following the fourteenth century decline of Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in Java, and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, the then British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians. Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, following which the monument was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage; once a year Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, and Borobudur is Indonesia's single most visited tourist attractional.
Approximately 40 kilometers (25 mi) northwest of Yogyakarta, Borobudur is located in an elevated area between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro-Sumbing and Merbabu-Merapi, and two rivers, the Progo and the Elo. According to local myth, the area known as Kedu Plain is a Javanese 'sacred' place and has been dubbed 'the garden of Java' due to its high agricultural fertility.[Besides Borobudur, there are other Buddhist and Hindu temples in the area, including the Prambanan temples compound. During the restoration in the early 1900s, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region, Borobudur, Pawon and Mendut, are lined in one straight line position.It might be accidental, but the temples' alignment is in conjunction with a native folk tale that a long time ago, there was a brick-paved road from Borobudur to Mendut with walls on both sides.
The three temples (Borobudur–Pawon–Mendut) have similar architecture and ornamentation derived from the same time period, which suggests that ritual relationship between the three temples, in order to have formed a sacred unity, must have existed, although exact ritual process is yet unknown. Unlike other temples, which were built on a flat surface, Borobudur was built on a bedrock hill, 265 m (869 ft) above sea level and 15 m (49 ft) above the floor of the dried-out paleolake.The lake's existence was the subject of intense discussion among archaeologists in the twentieth century; Borobudur was thought to have been built on a lake shore or even floated on a lake. In 1931, a Dutch artist and a scholar of Hindu and Buddhist architecture, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, developed a theory that Kedu Plain was once a lake and Borobudur initially represented a lotus flower floating on the lake. Lotus flowers are found in almost every Buddhist work of art, often serving as a throne for buddhas and base for stupas.
The architecture of Borobudur itself suggests a lotus depiction, in which Buddha postures in Borobudur symbolize the Lotus Sutra, mostly found in many Mahayana Buddhism (a school of Buddhism widely spread in the east Asia region) texts. Three circular platforms on the top are also thought to represent a lotus leaf. Nieuwenkamp's theory, however, was contested by many archaeologists because the natural environment surrounding the monument is a dry land. Geologists, on the other hand, support Nieuwenkamp's view, pointing out clay sediments found near the site. A study of stratigraphy, sediment and pollen samples conducted in 2000 supports the existence of a paleolake environment near Borobudur,[which tends to confirm Nieuwenkamp's theory. The lake area fluctuated with time and the study also proves that Borobudur was near the lake shore circa thirteenth and fourteenth century. River flows and volcanic activities shape the surrounding landscape, including the lake. One of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia, Mount Merapi, is in the direct vicinity of Borobudur and has been very active since the Pleistocene.
from : wikipedia.org
Supported by the “Serumpun Sabalai” spirit and abundant natural resources, it has been expecting a greater role to speed up the island region's development, namely Bangka regency, Belitung regency and Pangkal Pinang city through cooperation development. That potency of culture and tourism is also supported by its strategic location that can connect with other interesting area. The sea transportation that become the most accessibility in Bangka Belitung Island, is support its economics activities among the Islands.
The richness of Bangka Belitung Island of nature and tin mines until its maritime rich, make Bangka Belitung a magnet for the new comers to get a better life. A Balinese countryside is found in this Island named Giri Jati village, complete with all of Bali culture that remembering us to Bali Island. Beside Bali tribe, we also can found Bugis tribe that adds the various cultures in Bangka Balitung Island. This Bugis tribe can be found in the fishermen village at Tanjung Binga. Otherwise, the original tribe, Melayu culture has strong influence in the traditional ceremony and religious ceremony. One of the ceremonies is Rebo Kasan Ceremony that done by Air Anyer village people. It is believed that one day of a year, the God give His 320,000 angels in the world. The people must together to pray. This ceremony was held in the beach, but now on, it held in the mosque then continued to the beach. Formerly, this ceremony become the people party with its star party is ‘Dambus’ art.
Bangka Belitung province is located between 104°50' - 109°30' East Longitude and 0°50' - 4°10' South Latitude, with its total area of 81,724.54 km.
Administrativelly, Bangka Belitung comprises of 2 regencies and 1 city, namely Bangka regency, Belitung regency and Pangkal Pinang City, of which, the biggest regency's area is Bangka regency with 11,534.14 km area, and the smallest is Pangkal Pinang City, with 89.40 km area.
There are two seasons that are suitable for sailing to these islands: February-March and October-November, when the wind and the waves are low. The heaviest rainfall is around 2,500 mm per annum with its average temperature between 25°C - 26°C.
In 2001, Babel's population was 920,729 consisted of 462,640 men and 458,089 women. The biggest population among the regencies was Bangka regency, 583,841 people, while the most density population was Pangkalpinang City, with its 1,396 people/km. In 2001, the growth of population reached 1.49 % per annum averagely. Labor. In 2000, its labor force recorded as many as 100,825 people.
Lampung province is located between 3o 45' and 6o 45' South Latitude and between 103o 40' and 105o 50' East Longitude. This province is bordered by:
North side: South Sumatra Province
South Side: Sunda Strait
West side: Bengkulu Province
East side: Java Sea
The wide area of Lampung province is 33,307 sq km,
Lampung Province is divided among 4 regencies, 1 municipality and 1 administrative town with Bandar Lampung as its capital city.
The humidity of this province is various between 50% and 86%, and the rainfall is ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 mm per year. The temperature ranges between 20o C and 34o C.
The migration flow to Lampung province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation, fishery and industry. In 1994, the total population of this province was 6,200,306 people, with its average density of 196.8 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 2.12% per year during the 1990-1994 period. The projection and composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.
Lampung society consists of two main groups, respectively has special traditional law. They are Peminggir traditional society and Pepadun traditional society. Peminggir societies, such as, Krui, Ranau, Komering, and Kayu Agung society, live along the coast And, Pepadun society, who customarily conservative, such as, Abung (Abung Siwo Migo), Pubian (Pubian Telu Suku), Tulang Bawang (Migo Pak), Buai Lima (Way Kanan), and Sungkay Bunga Mayang, live in the inland.
Because of its sheer location on the southernmost rim of the South China Sea and close to one of world's busiest sea-lanes linking the Far East with Europe, the region's historical background is undoubtedly rich and colorful. Once the very site of the Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya, it practiced a bustling trade with then ancient China during its era dynasties. Inevitable of course, were the interacting forces of the two different cultures at the time, which nowadays are still noticeable as consequences of the past.
The visitors can easily reach South Sumatra by air through four major airports at Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Bangka and Belitung islands, all having direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang, Jakarta, and not long from now with Singapore too. Air-conditioned buses from points North and West of Palembang are regularly available, as well as from cities on Java and Bali.
Geographically, South Sumatra province is located between 1o and 4o South Latitude and between 102o and 108o East Longitude. The boundaries of the area is:
North side: South China Sea
West side: Jambi Province and Bengkulu Province
South side: Lampung Province
East side: Java Sea
South Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies, 2 municipals and 3 administrative towns with Palempang as its capital city.
The humidity of south Sumatra province is 78%. The rainfall range is variation between 2,000 - 3,000 mm per year and an average wind velocity of 3.23 km per hour. And the temperature ranges between 21.8o C and 32.2o C.
A migration flow to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion, mining and transmigration program. The population density of this province is 58,8 people per Km2 (1994). Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 1.10% per year.
The area of south Sumatra province is 103,688 sq. km width.
The British founded Bengkulu in 1685. It is a university town and administrative centre. It is the last territory in Indonesia to be held by the British. Fort Marlborough, constructed in 1762, is a castle with gatehouse that contains old gravestones with English inscription. Sir Stamford Raffles, who later found Singapore, was lieutenant - government of Bengkulu from 1818 to 1823.
Tabah Penanjung, an hour drive into the hills above Bengkulu is a nature reserve where rafflesias are often found. Mt Bukit Kaba, near the hill town of Curup can be climbed in a day from Bengkulu.
Geographically, Bengkulu is located between 2o and 5o South Latitude and between 101o and 104o Eastern Longitude. This Province is bordered by:
East Side: Jambi Province
West Side: Indian Ocean
South Side: Lampung Province and Indian Ocean
North Side: West Sumatra Province
Bengkulu Province is divided among 1 municipality and 3 districts, with Bengkulu as its capital city.
Its humidity is 87% and the rainfall ranges 3,598 mm per year. The temperature of this area ranges between 22.2o C and 31.1o C.
Bengkulu Province has an indigineous community consisted of Manna, Muko-Muko, and Minang. A transmigration program supports a migration flow to this province. The population density of this province was 68 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year; this province was on the higher level with 3.42% per year in the 1990-1994.
Bengkulu province is located on the southwest coast of Sumatra. It occupies of 19,831 sq. km area and has about one million populations, comprising mostly Rejang, Malay, Bugis and Chinese ethnic ancestry people.
Bengkulu province area is 21,168-sq.km widths. Bukit Barisan mountain range constitutes its northeastern border, beyond which lie in South Sumatra and Jambi provinces.
One of the greatest kingdoms in Indonesia history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the Musi River bank in Shouth Sumatra over a thousand years ago. Located in the southern-most rim of the Shout China Sea, close to one of the world's busiest shipping lanes linking the Far East With Europe, the region's historical background is rich and colorful.
Palembang is still the gateway to the province, and together with Pangkal Pinang on Bangka Island and Tanjung Pandan on Belitung, provides the region with three major airports. All three cities have direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang and Jakarta and the future will see the introduction of flights to Singapore. Air-conditioned buses from north and west points of Palembang are also regulary available, as well as the major cities in Java and Bali.
Geographically, Jambi is located between 0o 45' - 2o 45' Northern Latitude and between 101o 10' - 104o 55' East Longitude. This province is bordered by
North side: Riau province
West side: West Sumatra
East side: Berhala Strait
South side: Bengkulu province
Jambi province area is 44,800 sq km width.
Jambi Province is divided among 5 regencies and 1 municipality.
Jambi Humidity is about 83%. The rainfall ranges about 1,940 - 2,941 mm per year. The temperature is range between 22.5o C and 33.6o C.
A migration flows to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion and transmigration program. In 1994, the total population was 214,507 people, with an average density of 40.1 people per Km2. Compared to the average population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province is on the lower level with 1.21% per year during the 1990-1994 period.
Riau Archipelago with its thousands of island has plenty of scenic beaches and diving spots, among them Trikora on Bintan and Pasir Panjang on Rupat Island. The first is about 50 kilometers south of Tanjung Pinang on the eastern side of the island. Pasir Panjang, on the northern side of Rupat facing to Malacca Strait, is stretched out natural beaches are also found on Terkulai and Soreh islands, about an hour's distance by boat from Tanjung Pinang. One of the most popular beaches is Nongsa on Batam Island. From here one can see the Singapore skyline.
Riau is one of the richest provinces in Indonesia. This province is rich with natural resources, particularly petroleum and natural gas, rubber, and palm oil. The majority of the province is heavily forested lowland; logging is a major industry in the province.
Geographically, Riau Province lies on 445' North Altitude up to 115' South Longitude or 10003' up to 10919' Greenwich and 650' up to 145' West Longitude Jakarta, with natural borders as follows:
North side: North Sumatra Province, Malacca Straits
South side: Jambi Province
West Side: West Sumatra Province
East side: Riau Archipelago
Riau Province is administratively divided into 9 Regencies (Bengkalis, Indragiri Hilir, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, Pelalawan, Rokan Hilir, Rokan Hulu, Siak) and 2 cities (Pekanbaru, Dumai), with Pekanbaru as the capital city.
This region is dominantly characterized by the sea climate with average temperature of 30°C at day and 23°C at night throughout the year. Rainy season falls on November (sometimes October) up to April while dry season begins in July. Riau has tropical climate and in general is classified into climate type "A" with relatively high rainfall, ranging from 2,000 to 3,000 mm per year in average.
Most areas in Riau are lowland plain, including alluvial islands scattered along coastal line with average elevation less than 200 m above sea level. In mainland region, there are four big rivers, i.e. Rokan River, Siak River, Kampar River and Indragiri River. These rivers spring from Bukit Barisan mountain range stretching along the border Riau Province and West Sumatra Province, and flow down to Malacca Straits. The rivers play an important role as the means of transportation, sources of irrigation, energy, and clean water as well as fishery resources. Archipelagic region of Riau, on the other hand, is formed of volcanic formation in the form of islands, big and small. The soil is in general of Organosol type (Histosol), containing much organic substance. Wide Area
The territorial size of Riau Province is 329,867.16 km consisting of land area 94,561,61 Km2 and water area 235,306,00 Km2. Riau population is 4,948,000 (2000 census).
The land of the Minangkabau, West Sumatra has a distinct culture, which distinguishes it from the rest of the island. A land of scenic beauty with blue green lakes and mountains, West Sumatra's Centre of culture and tourism is Bukittinggi in the highlands, north of the provincial capital of Padang. Most prominent in the landscape is the horn-shaped roofs of the houses nestled in the coconut groves. The name Minangkabau means triumphant buffalo. It leads a community and family life based on a matrilineal system, which clusters around mosques and the traditional houses. As it is the women who have the properties, the men are known for their wanderlust and entrepreneurship. Traveling is considered a mark of success and therefore many of them are found "merantau" (emigrated) to other parts of the country. This is proof that many Minang or Padang restaurants, serve very spicy food, found in all major towns in the nation. The people are hospitable and eloquent in a poetic style of speech and ceremonies. Festivals are colorful occasions.West Sumatra has a coastline where the capital is situated. The hinterland is a range of high mountains, which dip into picturesque valleys and lakes. Amongst them are the remnants of the old Minangkabau kingdom of Pagaruyung, (the art centers for silver, hand-weaving, embroidery and woodcarving).
West Sumatra province has about 49,778 sq km width, which is located between 0o 54' North Latitude and 3o 30' South Latitude and between 98o 36' and 101o 53'. The boundaries of this regency is:
North Side: Riau Province
South Side: Indian Ocean
West Side: North Sumatra Province
East Side: Jambi and Bengkulu Province
West Sumatra Province has 42,297.30-km2 areas. The West Sumatran coastline faces the Indian Ocean and stretches 375 km from North Sumatra province in the northwest to Bengkulu in the southeast. West Sumatra lakes include: Maninjau (99.5 km2), Singkarak (130.1 km2), Diatas (31.5 km2), Dibawah (14.0 km2), Talang (5.0 km2). West Sumatra rivers include: Kuranji, Anai, Ombilin, Suliki, Arau. The mountains & volcanoes of West Sumatra are included: Marapi (2,891 m), Sago (2,271 m), Singgalang (2,877 m), Talakmau (2,912 m), Talang (2,572 m), Tandikat (2,438 m).
The temperature of West Sumatra province has ranges between 22o C and 32o C, and the rainfall is 2,289 mm per year.
West Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies and 6 municipals with Padang as its capital city.
The people of this province have a strong tradition leaving their hometown to make their way of life. Indeed, West Sumatra communities (Minang) are easily found in each province of Indonesia. In 1994, the total population reached 4,265,900 people with its density amounted to 101 people per Km2. In the 1990-1994 period, the people grew at a rate 1.6% per year or in the lower level that of the population national growth amounted to 2.144% per year.
from : http://www.indonesia-tourism.com
In contrast to the small island of Bali, North Sumatra province is large with one of the biggest lakes in the world, Toba Lake, at its navel. The continuous mountain of Bukit Barisan, which extends from Aceh at the tip of Sumatra island to Lampung at the bottom of the island, guards the province on the west side, providing home for thick, tropical jungles and lush vegetations. As you go down the western mountains towards the beaches of the east, mountain streams, strong rivers, and gorgeous waterfalls will accompany you.
Along the length of this province crosses Bukit Barisan Mountains with peaks of numerous volcanoes. The land has thick virgin forests, lush vegetation, rice fields, mountain streams, rivers, waterfalls and sandy beaches. It has a rich flora and fauna. An abundance of birds, butterflies, buffaloes, deer, mouse deer, orangutans and many other export commodities make North Sumatra one of the richest provinces in Indonesia, as it produces more than 30 % of Indonesia's exports. The province offers the visitors, especially nature lovers, beautiful tropical panoramas, terraced rice fields, blue mountains, jungle covered hills, white sandy beaches, music, dance and folk arts.
North Sumatra province has 70,787 sq km width. Geographically, it is located between 1o and 4o North Latitude and between 98o and 100o East Longitude. The area is Borders with:
- North side: the special territory of Aceh
- South side: West Sumatra Province and Riau Province
- West side: Indian Ocean
- East side: Malacca Strait
North Sumatra Province is divided among 11 regencies, 6 municipals, and 3 administrative towns with Medan as its capital city.
Composed of coastal areas, lowlands, plateaus, and mountains.
Humidity: Varies between 79% and 96%.
As one of Indonesia islands, North Sumatra has rainfall of 1,100-3,400 mm per year. It temperature is range between 18o C and 34o C.
Historically, North Sumatra Province has a migration flow of population either from other provinces because of the existence of heavy plantation in this province or migration to other areas for studying and expanding business. Since population mobility is high, there are multi ethnics on the community. In 1994, the population density of North Sumatra Province reached 157 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth (2.144% per year), this province was on the lower level with 1.53% per year. The projection population composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.
from : http://indonesia-tourism.com
Aceh is surrounded by:
North side: Malacca Strait
East Side: North Sumatra Province
South and the west Side: Indian Ocean.
The capital of Aceh is Banda Aceh. The Special Province of Aceh with its area of 57, 365.57 square kilometers covering 1.17 per cent of Indonesia is situated at the northern tip of Sumatra Island, between latitudes 2
In the central part of this province runs Bukit Barisan Mountain ranges with Tangse, Gayo, and Alas uplands. Also, there are several mountains found in the region such as Pasee Mountain with its peak, Geureudong" (2,595 m), and Peut Sagoe (2,708 m), Gayo Mountain range with its peak Burni Telong (2,566 m), and Ucap Malu Mountain range (3,187 m). Other mountains include: Alas mountain with its peak Abong-abong (3,015 m) Leuser (3,466 m), Aceh" Raya Mountain range with its peak Seulawah Agam, (1,762 m) and Seulawah Inong Mountain (868 m).
Besides the mountains and lakes, there are also several major and lesser rivers, which run into both of Malacca Strait or into the Indonesian Ocean. Among the rivers running into Malacca Straits are: Krueng Aceh (Aceh River) in the Greater Aceh Regency, Krueng Peusangan and Krueng Jambo Aye in North Aceh Regency, Krueng Baro in Pidie Regency, and Krueng Peureulak and Krueng Tamiang in East Aceh Regency; The rivers running to the Indonesian Qcean are Krueng Teunom and Krueng Meureubo in West Aceh Regency, Krueng Kluet, Krueng Simpang Kiri and Krueng Simpang Kanan in South Aceh Regency.
On the west and south coasts, there are both large and small islands, some of which are inhabited and others, which are uninhabited. These islands are Weh Island, Breuh Island, Nasi Island, Simeulue Island and Tuangke Island (Banyak Island).
The dry season in Aceh usually lasts from March through August. The rainy season starts in September to last until February. The average annual rainfall ranges from 2,000 mm to 3,000 mm, with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30° Celsius. In the highlands, the average temperature is 200 Celsius. The amount of rainfall varies between all parts of Aceh. The western and southern coasts have more rainfall than the other parts. The weather along the coastal areas is usually warm. In the mountains tend to be cooler. The humidity varies from 65 to 75 percent. The wind from the west begins in June through November while the wind from the east begins in December through May.
West Kalimantan area is as one of area, which common called as "A Thousand Rivers" province. This nickname is suitable with its geographical condition, which has hundreds great and small rivers and is often navigated. Some great rivers till now, is still be a main line for hinterland transportation, although land road infrastructure have been able to reach most of district, although partly small of West Kalimanta regions are water territory went out to sea, however West Kalimanatan has tens of big and small island (partly not dweller), which spread over along the length of Karimata Strait and Natuna Sea that is abutting on Riau Province region, Sumatera.
West Kalimantan Province is formed based on the constitution Number 25 in 1956 determined that West Kalimantan region as autonomous area province with its capital in Pontianak and because the constitution applied since 1 Januaries 1957, hence the West Kalimantan Province anniversary is commemorated on that date.
South Kalimantan Province is located in Kalimantan Island. South Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. The province has a population of 2.97 million (2000 census).
There are 11 regencies in South Kalimantan: Banjar, Tanah Bumbu, Kotabaru, Tanah Laut, Barito Kuala, Tapin, Hulu Sungai Selatan, Hulu Sungai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Utara, Balangan, and Tabalong. This province has an administrative city, Banjarbaru.
Banjarmasin city is the capital of South Kalimantan have face in five dimensions that is; Government Town, Port Town, Commerce Town, Industrial Town and Tourism town. This town is located in tip of south as the gateway of South Kalimantan, occupy lowland which swamps, and stay between 3150 - 3220 south latitudes and between 114 320 - 114 380 east longitudes.
Riparian life is initial individuality from the growth of this town with it river transportation, beside its land transportation that starting rapidly grow.
The existence of Flora and Fauna in swamps lowland along the length of the river flowing downstream to go upstream and ridge life is a journey corridor of tourism preoccupying.
Floating Market, which is the only one in Indonesia and other world, is unique culture value.
Banjarmasin city, as Tourism town, has big enough potency. National tourism is pledge sector in the economic activity, to enlarge foreign exchange, to extend and smooth down opportunity to try and employment, push development of area, introduce nature and cultural and to have fatherland love.
Central Kalimantan is one of the biggest Provinces in Indonesia with area total 153564 km2 or one-third from total Kalimantan Island, or equal to Java and Madura Island. Most of it, is jungle (80%), swamps, rivers and agriculture land. The northern area is mountainous and difficult to reach. The central area is dense and fertile tropical forest, producing valuable commodities such as rattan, resin and the best woods. The southern area is swampy and has many rivers. The boundaries of this province are:
North side: West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan
Side South: Java Sea and South Kalimantan
Westside: West Kalimantan
River has an important role people in Central Kalimantan. There is houseboat, but also have important meaning for people in transportation. Make a move out of one place to other place along the length of river to trade. Transportation facilities are limited much to the rough terrain. Central Kalimantan Province, cover one municipalities and five regencies: Palangkaraya Municipality, West Kotawaringin regency, East Kotawaringin regency, Kapuas regency, South Barito regency, North Barito regency, Administrative Town Kasongan, Administrative Assistant Kalingan, Administrative Assistant Seruyan, Administrative Assistant Gunung Mas, Administrative Assistant Pisau Island, Administrative Assistant Permata Intan, Administrative Assistant Sukamara.
Central Kalimantan has a humid and hot climate.
The three big Dayak tribes who inhabit this province are Ngaju, Ot Danum, and Ma'anyan Ot Siang. Ngaju, like some other tribes, moves from one region to another. They adhere to the old Kaharingan religion, which is the form of ancestor worship, mixed with animism elements. They have seen progress. Many of them live in the towns, have enjoyed an education and they are intelligent.
The Ot Danum live in longhouses, which sometimes have as many as 50 rooms. The unique longhouse is called Betang. With approximately 6,000 people, the Ot Danum is the largest among the three tribes. They are known for their skill in plaiting rattan, palm leaves, and bamboo. Made by the women, such products are sold in many cities such as Banjarmasin, Kualakapuas, and Sampit. Like other Dayaks, the men are good hunters, using simple tools. The art of Central Kalimantan clearly bears the marks of the Kaharingan religion, which is the traditional belief of the Dayaks in the hinterland of Central Kalimantan. The building styles are the elements of the Hindus, Chinese, and Hindu-Javanese. Aside from their aesthetic properties, such products are appreciated for their magic value.
The Ngaju, the most known Barito Bayak, managed the creation of the province of Central Kalimantan. They speak different dialects of which the Kahayan has become the local dialect. Most Ngaju practice Kaharingan, or are converted to protestantism; only the Bakumpai Ngaju converted to islam over a century ago.
The branding longhouses of the Dayak are hard to find among the Ngaju. Their place is taken by communal rooms, in which meeting and rytes are held. The Ngaju belong to the best artists of Borneo. This reputation is shown in the ceremonial objects for the dead, like the wooden coffins, tombes, and sailboats and big statues.
The Ma'anyan speak a language which is almost the same with that on Madagascar. There is a lot of speculation that their ancestors crossed the sea to Madagascar in the 3rd or 4th century. This would mean that the Ma'anyan lived more close to the beach than they do today.
The different Ma'anyan communities hold contact with each other and with the cities along the Barito by periodical markets. Their most important product for trade - nice canoos made out of one piece - are loved among the Banjarese.
During wars the Ma'anyan lived in family houses in pillars, which could be as high as seven meters. Many Ma'anyan practiced the Kaharingan religion. They know complicated rytes in combination with agriculture and funerals, bring sacrifices for spirits and ask a sjaman when someone has fallen ill. On their graveyard, you can see that the Ma'anyan used to be very layered: the bone-houses of the nobility are placed more upstream, followed to the ones of the warriors, the normal population and the slaves, most downstream.
Before a traditional marriage, the comming husband needs to work and live with the family for five years. This period can be shortened by payments to the coming mother-in-law. This is an extra on the bridal treasure, which consists of bronze drums, beads and money.
The Ot Danum
The Ot Danum (the name means upstream area) live in the area around the rivers north of the Ngaju and south of the Schwaner- and Müller Range, as well as the Melawi-beaken of West Kalimantan, which is located north of the Schwaner Range. Their area is three hundred km wide stretch of land just south of the equator. The Ngaju see the Ot Danum as their cultural ancestors, but there are remarkable differences between the two groups. The Ot Danum live in longhouses in pillars, two to five meters above the ground. This habit is probably taken from the Kenyah or Kayan.
The same with the headhunting, the mild form of social hierarchy and the images on shields and mandau lemmets. However the religion of the Ot Danum looks like that of the Ngaju (most of them still practice kaharingan), their ritual re-burials are more simple and their woodcarvings are less detailed.
from : http://indonesia-tourism.com
East Kalimantan is the widest province in Indonesia, broadly region is about 245237,80 Km2 or about one a half point of Java Island and Madura or 11 % from Indonesia region wide total. This province abuts on direct with neighboring state, that is Sabah and Serawak, East Malaysia.
Based on the government region, this province is divided into 4 municipal administrations, and 9 regencies and 122 Districts, 1347 villages and 191 sub-districts.
East Kalimantan Province has 13 Regencies and Cities
- Berau Regency
- Bulungan Regency
- Kutai West Regency
- Kutai Kartanegara Regency
- Kutai East Regency
- Malinau Regency
- Nunukan Regency
- Pasir Regency
- North Penajam Paser Regency
- Balikpapan City
- Bontang City
- Samarinda City
- Tarakan City
East Kalimantan Resident in 2004 amount to 2.750.369 men in 2005 East Kalimantan residents is predicted amount to 2,8 million men. It is compared to region wide, East Kalimantan Province has low density, that is mean about 11,22 men per Km2.
The main result of this province is mining products like oil, natural gas, and stone smoldered. Other sector being grow is agricultural and tourism.
East Kalimantan has some tourism objects such as;
- Derawan Archipelago in Berau,
- Kayan Mentarang National Park
- Batu Lamampu Beach in Nunukan
- The Crocodile Breeding in Balikpapan
- The Deer Breeding in Penajam,
- Dayak Pampang Kampong in Samarinda,
- Amal Beach in Tarakan city
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